Battery Mills
Sandy Hook, NJ
By World War I, battleship guns out-ranged disappearing gun batteries. To out-
range battleships, the Model 1917 Barbette carriage, was introduced. This
carriage allowed 12-inch guns to fire at a high angle over twenty miles in any
direction. During 1917-1919, the Army built two Barbette gun batteries on
Sandy Hook’s bay side where they couldn't be seen by enemy warships.
Named Battery Kingman and Battery Mills, they each mounted two 12-inch
caliber guns.  With the introduction of warplanes, the U.S. Army quickly added
anti-aircraft guns to protect its coast artillery forts from enemy air
attack. By World War II, Fort Hancock had several anti-aircraft gun batteries
located at or near its older gun batteries. Batteries Kingman
and Mills were also modernized during this war.  Their guns were protected
from aerial bombing by the addition of thick concrete walls and roofs
called casements. However, the awesome weapons and changing tactics of
World War II finally made the concept of defending harbors
with heavy artillery obsolete.

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